This paper focuses on the use of natural sources for the preparation of efficient and low cost catalysts, the CaCO3 material is obtained from the bone of cuttlefish that was modified by cation exchange of Ca++ by Cu++ in CaCO3 using a solution of copper (Cu(NO3)2) at different concentrations. The modification of solids was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), the energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) and ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis) spectroscopy. The results show that the copper exchanged materials contain nanoparticle composite CuCO3-CuO. The obtained solids were used as catalysts for cycloaddition reaction of different azides with activated alkenes at room temperature under liquid-phase conditions. The different parameters which affect the reaction were investigated such as reaction time, temperature reaction, effect of copper content, catalyst mass, effect of solvent and nature of azide. High yields were obtained with the catalyst containing more amount of copper. The best catalysts were calcined at different temperatures 200, 300, 400, 500°C in order to determine the active phase CuCO3 or CuO in the catalytic reaction. The XRD analysis of calcined composites show that the increase in calcination temperature leads to the formation of the CuO phase. On the other hand, the use of these calcined materials as catalysts shows that the active phase is copper carbonate. Finally, a new method for preparing triazoles in short reaction times was developed by the use of cheap environmentally friendly catalyst.
The soil from an industrial area in Algeria was contaminated with Cr (8370 mg kg−1), Ni (1135 mg kg−1) and zinc (1200 mg kg−1).